LEBANON IS MORE THAN A COUNTRY, IT IS A MESSAGE
(JOHN PAUL II)
“Lebanon was and still is a living example of coexistence
and perhaps this is the characteristic that is vexing those who want to destroy it.”
(Maronite Patriarch Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir/August 01, 2006).
Facts about Lebanon
Capital : Beirut
Population : 4.1 millions
Area : 10.452 square kilometers
Monetary Unit : the Lebanese Pound
Official Language : Arabic
General Information (lgic.org)
The History of Lebanon (lgic.org)
Lebanese Americans (lgic.org)
Photos of Lebanon (lgic.org)
Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Since independence the country has been marked by periods of political turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on its position as a regional center for finance and trade. The country's 1975-90 civil war that resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities, was followed by years of social and political instability. Sectarianism is a key element of Lebanese political life. Neighboring Syria has long influenced Lebanon's foreign policy and internal policies, and its military occupied Lebanon from 1976 until 2005. The Lebanon-based Hizballah militia and Israel continued attacks and counterattacks against each other after Syria's withdrawal, and fought a brief war in 2006. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.
Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Map references: Middle East
Area: total: 10,400 sq km
country comparison to the world: 170
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km
Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries: total: 454 km
border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain: narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m
Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Land use: arable land: 10.72% permanent crops: 12.06% other: 77.22% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,040 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources: 4.5 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 1.31 cu km/yr (29%/11%/60%)
per capita: 316.8 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills.
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note: Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
People and Society
Nationality: noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%
note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendents of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Religions: Muslim 59.7% (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Coptic, Protestant), other 1.3%
note: 17 religious sects recognized
Population: 4,131,583 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.1% (male 467,416/female 445,352)
15-24 years: 17.5% (male 368,097/female 353,518)
25-54 years: 42.4% (male 844,217/female 906,795)
55-64 years: 8.7% (male 165,271/female 193,312)
65 years and over: 9.4% (male 178,080/female 209,525) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 41.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 29.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 12.3 %
potential support ratio: 8.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 30.9 years
male: 29.7 years
female: 32.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.04% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
Birth rate: 14.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Death rate: 6.73 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Net migration rate: -8.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Urbanization: urban population: 87.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.86% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BEIRUT (capital) 1.909 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 25 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 131
Infant mortality rate: total: 14.81 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 112
male: 14.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.46 years
country comparison to the world: 94
male: 73.86 years
female: 77.13 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 58% (2004)
Health expenditures: 7% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 81
Physicians density: 3.54 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 98% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 2% of population (2000 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,600 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 27.4% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 40
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 4.2% (2004)
country comparison to the world: 96
Education expenditures: 1.7% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 167
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89.6%
female: 86% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Child labor - children ages 5-14: total number: 54,387
percentage: 7 % (2000 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 22.1%
country comparison to the world: 51
female: 21.5% (2007)
Country name: conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
conventional short form: Lebanon
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form: Lubnan
former: Greater Lebanon
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Beirut
geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beqaa, Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
note: two new governorates - Aakkar and Baalbek-Hermel - have been legislated but not yet implemented
Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Constitution: 23 May 1926; amended a number of times, most recently in 1990 to include changes necessitated by the Charter of Lebanese National Reconciliation (Ta'if Accord) of October 1989
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communities
International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Suffrage: 21 years of age; compulsory for all males; authorized for women at age 21 with elementary education; excludes military personnel
Executive branch: note: following the resignation of Prime Minister Najib MIQATI and his Cabinet on 22 March 2013, the government is in caretaker status until a new prime minister is named and a new cabinet is formed
chief of state: President Michel SULAYMAN (since 25 May 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Najib MIQATI (since 7 July 2011), Deputy Prime Minister Samir MOQBIL (since 7 July 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and members of the National Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website)
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a six-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 25 May 2008 (next to be held in 2014); the prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly
election results: Michel SULAYMAN elected president; National Assembly vote - 118 for, 6 abstentions, 3 invalidated; 1 seat unfilled due to death of incumbent
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab (Arabic) or Assemblee Nationale (French) (128 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of sectarian proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by group - March 8 Coalition 54.7%, March 14 Coalition 45.3%; seats by group - March 14 Coalition 71; March 8 Coalition 57; seats by party following 16 July 2012 byelection held to fill one seat - March 14 Coalition 72, March 8 Coalition 56
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (organized into 4 divisions, each with a presiding judge and 2 associate judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 10 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by Supreme Judicial Council, headed by the chief justice, and includes other judicial officials; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the Council of Ministers and 5 by parliament; members serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (6); Courts of First Instance; specialized tribunals, religious courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders: 14 March Coalition:
Democratic Left [Ilyas ATALLAH]
Democratic Renewal Movement [Nassib LAHUD]
Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI]
Kataeb Party [Amine GEMAYEL]
Lebanese Forces [Samir JA'JA]
Tripoli Independent Bloc
8 March Coalition:
Development and Resistance Bloc [Nabih BERRI, leader of Amal Movement]
Free Patriotic Movement [Michel AWN]
Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc [Mohammad RA'AD] (includes Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH])
Nasserite Popular Movement [Usama SAAD]
Popular Bloc [Elias SKAFF]
Syrian Ba'th Party [Sayez SHUKR]
Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO]
Tashnaq [Hovig MEKHITIRIAN]
Democratic Gathering Bloc [Walid JUNBLATT, leader of Progressive Socialist Party]
Metn Bloc [Michel MURR]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Maronite Church [Patriarch Bishara al-Ra'i]
other: note - most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups operate in Palestinian refugee camps
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antoine CHEDID
chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 939-6300
FAX:  (202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maura CONNELLY
embassy: Awkar, Lebanon (Awkar facing the Municipality)
mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Lebanon; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070
telephone:  (4) 542600, 543600
FAX:  (4) 544136
Flag description: three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree centered in the white band; the red bands symbolize blood shed for liberation, the white band denotes peace, the snow of the mountains, and purity; the green cedar tree is the symbol of Lebanon and represents eternity, steadiness, happiness, and prosperity
National symbol(s): cedar tree
National anthem: name: "Kulluna lil-watan" (All Of Us, For Our Country!)
lyrics/music: Rachid NAKHLE/Wadih SABRA
note: adopted 1927; the anthem was chosen following a nationwide competition
Economy - overview: Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and weak intellectual property rights. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism. The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern entrepot and banking hub. Following the civil war, Lebanon rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily - mostly from domestic banks - saddling the government with a huge debt burden. Pledges of economic and financial reforms made at separate international donor conferences during the 2000s have mostly gone unfulfilled, including those made during the Paris III Donor Conference in 2007 following the July 2006 war. The collapse of the government in early 2011 over its backing of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon and unrest in neighboring Syria slowed economic growth to the 1-2% range in 2011-12, after four years of 8% average growth. In September 2011 the Cabinet endorsed a bill that would provide $1.2 billion in funding to improve Lebanon''s downtrodden electricity sector, but fiscal limitations will test the government''s ability to invest in other areas, such as water.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $64.22 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$63.27 billion (2011 est.)
$62.34 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $41.35 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
1.5% (2011 est.)
7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $16,000 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
$16,000 (2011 est.)
$16,000 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 17.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
22.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
13.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 81.5%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 32.9%
exports of goods and services: 19.2%
imports of goods and services: -48.8%
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 4.6%
services: 75.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Industries: banking, tourism, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
Labor force: 1.481 million
country comparison to the world: 130
note: in addition, there are as many as 1 million foreign workers (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 28% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $9.396 billion
expenditures: $13.32 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 22.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-9.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
Public debt: 127.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
133.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment.
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
5.1% (2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate: 3.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
10% (31 December 2009 est.)
Commercial bank prime lending rate: 7.25% (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
7.53% (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of narrow money: $4.712 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
$4.072 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money: $97.04 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$92 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Stock of domestic credit: $75.76 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
$69.65 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
Market value of publicly traded shares: $10.16 billion (31 December 2011)
$12.59 billion (31 December 2010)
$12.89 billion (31 December 2009)
Current account balance: -$7.85 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
-$4.163 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $5.662 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
$5.386 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: jewelry, base metals, chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Exports - partners: South Africa 16.9%, Switzerland 10.7%, UAE 8.7%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, Syria 6.4%, Iraq 4.4% (2012)
Imports: $20.38 billion (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$19.3 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners: US 11.2%, China 8.3%, Italy 7.8%, France 7.4%, Germany 5.4%, Turkey 4.7%, Egypt 4.1%, Greece 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $52.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$48.14 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $29.02 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$24.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar -
1,507.5 (2012 est.)
1,507.5 (2011 est.)
1,507.5 (2010 est.)
Electricity - production: 12.98 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Electricity - consumption: 12.34 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Electricity - imports: 1.155 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.314 million kW (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 12.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 106,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
Refined petroleum products - imports: 102,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 15.24 million Mt (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
Telephones - main lines in use: 900,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 82
Telephones - mobile cellular: 3.35 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 121
Telephone system: general assessment: repair of the telecommunications system, severely damaged during the civil war, now complete
domestic: two mobile-cellular networks provide good service; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 100 per 100 persons
international: country code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria (2011)
Broadcast media: 7 TV stations, 1 of which is state-owned; more than 30 radio stations, 1 of which is state-owned; satellite and cable TV services available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible through partner stations (2007)
Internet country code: lb
Internet hosts: 64,926 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 91
Internet users: 1 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 99
Airports: 8 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 160
Airports - with paved runways: total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m:
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 88 km (2013)
Railways: total: 401 km
country comparison to the world: 116
standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m gauge
note: rail system unusable because of the damage done during fighting in the 1980s and in 2006 (2008)
Roadways: total: 6,970 km (includes 170 km of expressways) (2005)
country comparison to the world: 147
Merchant marine: total: 29
country comparison to the world: 85
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 7, carrier 17, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Syria 2)
registered in other countries: 34 (Barbados 2, Cambodia 5, Comoros 2, Egypt 1, Georgia 1, Honduras 2, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Moldova 1, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 6, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Beirut, Tripoli
Military branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Lebanese Army ((Al Jaysh al Lubnani) includes Lebanese Navy (Al Quwwat al Bahiriyya al Lubnaniya), Lebanese Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Lubnaniya)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-24 years of age for officer candidates; no conscription (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,081,016
females age 16-49: 1,115,349 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 920,825
females age 16-49: 941,806 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 36,856
female: 35,121 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 55
Disputes - international: lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon has been in place since 1978
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 436,154 (Palestinian refugees (UNRWA)) (2011); 6,516 (Iraq) (2012); 728,252 (Syria) (2013)
IDPs: at least 47,000 (1975-90 civil war, 2007 Lebanese security forces' destruction of Palestinian refugee camp) (2011)
Trafficking in persons: current situation: Lebanon is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Eastern European women and children are transported through Lebanon for sexual exploitation in other Middle Eastern countries; women from Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Ethiopia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Nepal, Madagascar, Congo, Togo, Cameroon, and Nigeria are recruited by agencies to work in domestic service but are often subject to conditions indicative of forced labor, including the withholding of passports, nonpayment of wages, restricted movement, threats, and abuse; Lebanon's artiste visa program enabling women to work as dancers for three months in the adult entertainment industry sustains a significant sex trade; anecdotal information indicates some Lebanese children are victims of forced labor, such as street begging and commercial sexual exploitation; Syrian refugee women and children in Lebanon are at increased risk of sex trafficking
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Lebanon does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government conducts investigations of human trafficking and possibly some prosecutions but for another year did not report convicting any trafficking offenders or officials complicit in human trafficking; the government continues to lack a formal system for identifying victims and does not have a policy to protect victims from being punished for crimes committed as a direct result of being trafficked; NGOs, rather than the government, provide victim assistance and protection (2013)
Illicit drugs: cannabis cultivation dramatically reduced to 2,500 hectares in 2002 despite continued significant cannabis consumption; opium poppy cultivation minimal; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug trafficking
The World Factbook 2013
Lebanon capitalizes on the initiative of its people and its geographical location to make up for a lack of natural resources.
Traditionally, a substantial percentage of the country’s income derives from remittances sent by the millions of Lebanese residing overseas. A service-based economy, its trading, banking and financial facilities as well as its free currency market made Lebanon the region’s commercial and tourist center before the war. With peace established and reconstruction underway, Lebanon is once again serving as commercial and touristic capital in the area.
About 38% of the country is under cultivation, with wheat, vegetables, fruit, tobacco and olives the main crop categories. There is considerable livestock farming as well. Industry ranges from cement and cables to textiles, clothing furniture, canned goods and light metals. Tourism, one of the mainstays of the pre-war economy, is being revived.
To help strengthen the economy, the authorities have initiated a low income tax schedule to provide investment incentive, increase disposable income and expand the tax base.
Currency and Banking
Movement of currency into and out of the country and all exchange transactions are completely free of any kind of control. Gold and silver coins may be freely exchanged, imported and exported. The monetary unit is the Lebanese pound issued in LL50, LL100, LL250, LL500, LL1,000, LL5,000, LL10,000, LL20,000, LL50,000 and LL100,000 denominations.
Banking is a major industry in Lebanon with strict banking secrecy one of its important features. More than 75 banks operate in the country and transactions are performed efficiently and at low cost.
The Lebanese flag is divided into three wide horizontal stripes with red on top and bottom, and a wider white stripe in the middle. In the center of this stripe is a green cedar tree, the emblem of the country.
Lebanon is a democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government and a cabinet headed by a prime minister. Its
constitution is based on the separation of executive, legislative and judicial power, with a president elected for six-year term. The 128 members of parliament are elected by universal adult suffrage for a four year term.
The Lebanese Republic is divided into six regional administrative districts, or Mohafazaat: Beirut, North Lebanon, Mount Lebanon, the Beqaa and Nabatiyeh.
All foreigners must have a valid passport and visa to enter Lebanon. Passports must be valid for at least six months. Visas can be obtained in advance at Lebanese embassies and consulates around the world. Nationals of many countries can also obtain business or tourist visas upon arrival at the Beirut Airport and at other ports of entry on the Lebanese border. At the Beirut Airport, visa stamps can be purchased at a window directly across from passport control. You can pay in cash in U.S. dollars or Lebanese pounds. The price of a 15-day visa is US$17 (LL25,000). A single entry, three-month visa is US$35 (LL50,000). Contact the Lebanese embassy or consulate in your country or see the General Directorate of General Security website for additional visa information http://www.general-security.gov.lb.
Important Note: Travelers holding passports that contain visas or entry/exit stamps for Israel are likely to be refused entry into Lebanon.
Examination of travelers' luggage is carried out rapidly and courteously. All ordinary personal effects are exempt from customs duty.
The official Lebanese currency is the Lebanese pound or lira (LL). Notes are available in denominations of: LL1,000; LL5,000; LL10,000; LL20,000; LL50,000; and LL100,000. There are also LL250 and LL500 coins.
U.S. dollars are used widely throughout the country. Restaurants, hotels, and stores often quote their prices in U.S. dollars, and many establishments will convert and provide U.S. dollar prices for you upon request.
The US$/LL exchange rate is relatively stable, hovering around US$1=LL1,500. The appreciation of the Euro since early 2002 has benefited European travelers. Check the Yahoo! Currency Converter for the latest exchange rate before you go.
Major credit cards (Visa, Mastercard, American Express, and Diners Club) are accepted at most large establishments throughout the country. ATMs are also widely available in Beirut and larger cities and will usually dispense both U.S. dollars and Lebanese pounds.
Exchanging tourist checks is carried out in some Lebanese banks. As for local or foreign currencies, they can be exchanged at the exchange offices that are spread in the cities.
It is not uncommon to pay “tips” at café houses and restaurants. A tip value ranges between 5% and 10% of the total value.
While Arabic is Lebanon's official language, English and French are widely spoken. Most Lebanese speak at least two or three languages, and visitors will find no problems communicating. Many establishments provide signs, menus, and information in both Arabic French and English.
Lebanese time is G.M.T. +2 hours in winter (October to March) and +3 hours in summer (April to September), when daylight savings time is observed.
Shops and businesses are typically open Monday through Saturday, 9:00-18:00. Hours vary, and in summer many establishments close early. Restaurant hours vary, and many restaurants, especially in Beirut, are open late.
Banking hours are Monday through Saturday, 8:30-12:30. Working hours for government offices and post offices are typically 8:00-14:00 from Monday to Thursday.
Friday: 8:00-11:00 - Saturday: 8:00-13:00
Thanks to its diverse population and different religious groups, Lebanon has a full calendar of official holidays. Although all banks, government offices, and schools are closed on holidays, it is often possible to find shops and restaurants open for business. Holidays with Fixed Dates:
· New Year's Day – January 1
· Christmas (Armenian-Orthodox) – January 6
· St. Maroun's Day – February 9
· Commemoration of the assassination of PM Rafic Hariri - February 14
· Labor Day – May 1
· Martyrs' Day – May 6
· Annunciation Day / Resistance & Liberation day – May 25
· Lady Mary Assumption – August 15
· Independence Day – November 22
· Christmas – December 25
Religious Holidays with Moveable Dates:
· Catholic Good Friday
· Orthodox Good Friday
· Catholic Easter
· Orthodox Easter
· Ras As-Sana - Hegire (Muslim New Year)
· Eid Al-Fitr (three days)
· Eid Al-Adha (three days)
· Mawlid An-Nabi (Prophet Muhammad's Birthday)
Telephone system in Lebanon is well-developed and many public pay phones are available. International phone calls are expensive, and phone cards are available and less expensive from dialing directly from your hotel room. These cards are sold at newsstands, from service shops, and telephone and OGERO centers.
Most Lebanese use mobile phones, and coverage extends throughout the country.
The country code for Lebanon is (961). This is followed by the local area code and the telephone number. If you are dialing Lebanon from outside the country, omit the (0) in the area code.
Since 2004, there have been public telephone centers in the main districts and cities. Pre-paid phone cards are used for domestic and international communication. These cards are sold at newsstands, from service shops, and telephone and OGERO centers.
Telephone Number Codes in Lebanese Cities:
El Matn (Brummana, Beit Meri): 05
Baabda – el Shouf (Deir el Qamar, Beiteddine): 05
North Lebanon (Tripoli, Zgharta, Bsharreh, Ehden): 06
South Lebanon (Sidon, Tyre): 07
Beqaa (Zahleh, Baalbeck): 08
Kesrouan (Jounieh, Byblos): 09
All numbers starting with the code 03, 70, 71, 76 belong to the Mobile net.
The Post – The Internet
Post service in Lebanon is provided by “Liban Post”, a company whose offices are spread in Beirut and in the Lebanese regions. Its offices open from Monday to Friday (8,00a.m. – 5,00p.m.; and on Saturday till 1:30p.m.. There are public post boxes in different parts in Beirut.
In Lebanon, there are also private companies for quick post service.
Addresses of “Liban Post” In Beirut
Tel.: 01-629629 – www.libanpost.com.lb
Makdissi street (Hamra), Riad Solh Street (City Centre), Omar Bin el Khattab Street (el Basta), Gouraud Street (Gemmayze), Sassine square (Ashrafieh), Boulevard Saeb Salaam (Mazraa), Taqiyyiddine el Solh Street (Raouche/ Koreitem), Baabda, Borj Hammoud, Adlieh and Badaro.
There are Internet cafés available throughout Lebanon, and many larger hotels now offer high-speed and wireless Internet access for free or for a small fee.
Electric current is 220 volts, 50 cycles. A two-pin plug, with round pins is commonly used (Type C, similar to many European countries), but other types of plugs are also in use so it is best to check before you go.
Weights and Measures
Metric scale is used in Lebanon.
No inoculations are necessary in order to enter Lebanon. Visitors are advised to drink bottled mineral water with intact caps as most Lebanese People do since pipe water in the houses is not always good for drinking. Most Lebanese water companies are professional. In order to avoid infectious diseases during the first days of your stay in Lebanon, it’s advisable to abstain from eating sea foods, raw foods and unwashed vegetables. As is the general traveler’s rule, to be absolutely safe, do not take ice in your drinks, and eat only cooked food and fruits that you can peel.
Lebanese foods are delicious, and sometimes they are difficult to digest. On sunny days, it’s better not to be exposed to sunlight for a long time.
Pharmacies are plentiful and well-known for their professionalism. Some of them offer free home delivery services.
Beirut hospitals are well-known for their professionalism.
Emergency numbers in Beirut:
Doctors under request: 01-444400
Red Cross: 140
American University Hospital: 01-350000
Hotel Dieu Hospital 01-615300
St. George Hospital: 01-585700
Rizk Hospital: 01-200800
Getting to Lebanon
By Air & Sea
Beirut International Airport at Khaldé officially called Rafic El Hariri Airport (7km south of Beirut) is Lebanon’s only international airport. The airport is served by many international airlines, as well as the national carrier, Middle East Airlines (MEA) www.mea.com.lb. Connections to cities in the Middle East, Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa are frequent. http://www.beirutairport.gov.lb/
In addition, several steamship lines connect the ports of Beirut www.beirutairport.gov.lb, Jounieh and Tripoli with the rest of the world.
There are four border crossing points between Lebanon and Syria: Masnaa (on the Beirut-Damascus Highway), Qaa (at the northern edge of the Békaa Valley), Aaridé (north of Tripoli along the coast), and Aabboudiyé (northeast of Tripoli).
You can travel between Lebanon and Syria by private/rental car, bus, private taxi, or service taxi. Nationals of many countries can get a Lebanese visa at the border.
Getting Around in Lebanon
For the independent traveler, it is possible to make your way to the main attractions in Lebanon via a combination of buses and taxis, or rental car. The small size of the country makes such trips very manageable. High-quality traditional and ecotour operators also offer a wide variety of tours and packages that explore destinations throughout the country.
From Beirut International Airport
Taxis are widely available at the airport, and most hotels in Beirut can arrange for a taxi driver to pick you up from the airport. The price is usually around US$25-30 from the airport to a hotel in downtown Beirut.
The two main bus companies in Lebanon are the public bus company, OCFTC, and the private bus company, the Lebanese Commuting Company (LCC). Both OCFTC and LCC have buses that run on extensive routes from Beirut to towns throughout the country. The price of a one-way ticket is usually LL1,500 to LL3,000 (US$1 to US$2) per person. The two main bus stations in Beirut are Cola roundabout (for destinations to the South and Beqaa valley) and Charles Helou Station (for destinations to the North). Charles Helou is the only formal station and is divided into three signposted zones:
· Zone A For buses to Syria.
· Zone B For buses servicing Beirut (where the route starts or finishes at Charles Helou).
· Zone C For express buses to Jounieh, Byblos and Tripoli.
· Zones A and C have ticket offices where you can buy tickets for your journey. In the other stations (Cola and Dawra) ask any driver for your bus (if they don't find you first).
· Dawra transport hub Lying east of Beirut and covering the same destinations as Charles Helou, it's usually a port of call in and out of the city.
Alternatively, you can hire a taxi and driver from one of the many private taxi companies to take you on a return trip to a destination outside of Beirut. You should be sure to agree on a round-trip price ahead of time. Round-trip prices range from US$50 to US$125, depending on the destination and type of car desired. The taxi will pick you up from your hotel.
Shared service taxis (“servees”), which run on set routes in Beirut and between towns throughout the country, are also widely available. These are a less expensive option than hiring a private taxi. Fares are LL2,000 (US$1.33) in and around Beirut, and LL2,000-LL10,000 (US$1.33-6.67) for destinations outside of Beirut.
Rental cars are widely available in Lebanon. Rental costs may range from US$25-100 per day, or higher, depending on the type of car. Most rental companies will also provide a driver with the car, for an additional fee of US$25-50. Fuel prices are relatively reasonable in Lebanon, by European and American standards.
Drivers in Lebanon should exercise caution. In general, traffic jams are common, parking is difficult, and traffic rules are not enforced. Outside of Beirut there is a shortage of road signage, and those signs that do exist are usually in Arabic.
An International Driving Permit is required if you want to drive in Lebanon.
Organized Bus Tours
A number of traditional tour companies take tourists on full-size, air-conditioned buses to the main tourist destinations in Lebanon. Check with these tour operators for tour package options.
Another option is to see the country as part of a small, outfitted group. Outdoor adventure and ecotour operators will arrange transportation for packages in different price ranges. An added bonus is that guided outdoor or cultural activities are included and tailored to your group’s interests. Other than independent travel, an outfitted trip can be the best way to truly explore the country and experience Lebanon’s culture and nature.
Lebanon's steep terrain and the state of many urban roads demand a rugged, all-terrain-type bicycle. There are no designated bike lanes or routes.
Lodging places are plentiful in Lebanon: Hotels, camps, youth houses, residence with families and so on. The Lebanese are known for their hospitality; they are always willing to welcome tourists. Accommodation prices (at hotels) depend on feast days and seasons. High season times in Lebanon are summer time, mainly June, July, August and September. This period is the most costly one with the arrival of Lebanese emigrants to Lebanon from the Gulf or western countries. Low season time begins in October and ends in May. Costs of hotels accommodation are negotiable in this season.
In Lebanon, hotels vary in quality; they are classified from one-star to five-star hotels. There are “A” or “B” hotels with respect to the services. The international classification of hotels that are top in quality and have good services is applied on hotels spread at the sea-side and whose services are well developed. In Beirut there are hotels linked to an international chain of hotels that offer the best kind of services and most of which have electronic web sites. There are also hotels that offer cheaper prices and services. A brochure containing a list of all the names of Lebanese hotels is available at the Public Bureau of Tourism.
Homes and Monasteries
Lodging in a room belonging to a monastery or a guest house whose prices are moderate is possible. 03-513766 – 01-614678 or go to:
Monday - Friday, 9am - 6pm.
Bookings can only be made online.
The number of these places has been increasing in Lebanon. For more details contact the Lebanese Youth Homes Union (FLAI) from 9:00a.m. to 4:00p.m. 01-369760 or 01-366099. In Lebanon there are eight youth homes:
· The Christian Association for Youth in Ras el Matn. 01-486331
· Ecology Club in Bsharreh. 06-678488 – www.ecoclub-becharre.org
· Beit el Kahen in Maad. 09-750370
· Beity Kfardhibyan. 09-711257, or go to gwww.beity
· Deir St. George in Bahrdaq. 04-914002
· Fares Camp in Ras el Matn. 01-486331
· Association of Forest Development and Conservation (AFPC) in Rmaileh, 05-280430. www.afdc.org.lb
· Longue Vie – Mont Joli, Bahr Saaf. 04-982571. www.longuevie.com
· Deir St. Michael in Maaser ech Shouf. 05-350451
· St. Joseph Center in Damour. 05-602642
· Taanael Reserve. 08-544881
· Zefta in Nabatiyeh. 07-505950
· Jammal Motel in Baalbeck. 08-370649
There are not large numbers of Camps in Lebanon. Three of these camps are set in: Aamshit, Mnytra Reserve. 01-498774, (www.areserve.com.lb) and Barouk: 05-240251.
Lodging service in some old newly rebuilt houses is offered (Batroun, Ghabaleh, Choueir, Beit Meri).
One may contact el Mashrek Apartments. 03-664138
There many furnished apartments in Lebanon. Contact the Public Bureau of Tourism to get a list of these furnished apartments.
Skiing and sports
Lebanon is one of the few winter sports centers in the Middle East and certainly the most extensive. The season begins in December and continues until April in a winter landscape surprising in its variety and beauty. The largest resorts have hotels, chalets and other facilities, including good ski lifts. There are six winter resorts: The Cedars (2,300 – 2,850 meters), Laklouk (1,840 – 2,000 meters), Faqra (1,765 – 1,975 meters), Qanat Bakiche (1,840 – 2.000 meters), Zaarour (1,700 – 2,000 meters), Mzaar Kfardebian (1,946 – 2465 meters).
Lebanon’s long varied coastline and its Mediterranean climate make it an ideal place for water sports. Numerous resort complexes, beaches and swimming clubs have aquatic amusements and sports on offer, including water skiing, surfing, underwater fishing, sailing, scuba diving and snorkeling.
Equipment for water skiing and scuba diving can be rented from clubs and shops.
As tempting as the seaside is, many more sports opportunities await the visitor. Tennis, squash and football are all popular. There are fitness clubs where it is possible to work out, as well as groups interested in judo, karate, yoga, gymnastics, parasailing, golf www.golfclub.org.lb, cycling, canoeing, kayaking, mountain climbing, potholing and caving http://speleoliban.org/ http://www.alesliban.org.
· Before checking in, read the contract and make sure the prices and taxes agree with those stated when you made your reservation.
· Before leaving the room, make sure you place your valuables in the safe provided.
· Check if tap water is safe before drinking it.
· Prices are stated in Lebanese Lira (LL), although US Dollars are widely accepted. Check the price and the Label of the goods.
· Try to buy products without involving intermediaries.
· Check the expiry date of food and beverages (in particular canned food).
· Tourists departing from Lebanon are entitled to a VAT refund, at either Beirut
· Airport or on the borders, on goods purchased from the Vat refund shops.
How to redeem your VAT
In Lebanon there are many opportunities to benefit from Tax Free Shopping, more than 1200 retail outlets are offering the service. The affiliated stores are displaying a well-known Tax Free Shopping logo, and helpful staff will guide you through the process. VAT refunds are processed by Global Refund company.
You pay 10% VAT on the purchases you make; the VAT rate is common in all registered shops no matter the type of goods. Tourists departing from Lebanon are entitled to a VAT refund on goods purchased during their stay. Every foreigner or Lebanese person residing abroad, and whose stay in Lebanon does not exceed three continuous months, is entitled to ask for a VAT refund. A VAT refund is not applicable to services (hotels, telecommunications, car hire, guided tours, flowers Lebanon, etc.), Lebanese foodand beverage (restaurants, cafes, supermarkets), fuel, or tobacco.
Example: If you make your purchases on April 10th, you must leave the country no later than July 9th. Assuming you have spent the amount of LBP100,00 (around US$100) including VAT, the VAT amount will be LBP13,636 and the refund amount LBP11,000 which is always 80% of the VAT amount, after deduction of the handling expenses.
3 steps to claim back your VAT at Beirut International Airport or on the borders:
1- In the store:
· Shop where you see the "Tax Free Shopping" sign.
· Simply ask for your Refund Cheque and shop invoice
· Spend at least LBP150,000 tax included per shop per day to qualify for VAT refund
2- Through customs show the following:
· Global Refund Cheque
· Purchases along with shop invoice
· Passport and a photocopy showing arrival and departure dates
· Make sure you have your Global Refund Cheque stamped by customs' inspector. Slip all mentioned documents with a photocopy of your passport into Global Refund's mailbox to process your transaction.
3- To collect your refund you can choose between:
· Cash up to a limit of LBP750,000 (at the airport only)
· Transfer to credit card within 35 days
· Bank cheque sent to a chosen address
· Taxis in Lebanon have a red license plate.
· Ask the driver to tell you the rate upfront.
· Should there be any problems, make sure you write down the taxi driver’s name and license plate number.
· he following is a list of prices for journeys from Beirut Airport to other destinations
in the country:
For comments/complaints, contact the Airport Police Department on the
following telephone numbers: 961-1-629625 961-1-629517/8
· Lebanese Rental cars have green license plates with numbers preceded by the letter “ M”.
· When renting a car, carefully read the contract and the insurance policy before signing for it.
· Observe public safety and respect traffic regulations.
· Before buying any guided tour check the services provided.
· Only use Tour Guides who carry a permit card issued by the Ministry of Tourism.
· Before employing the services of a local tour guide, check the tariff affixed at the entrance of a tourist site.
Restaurants, Night Clubs & Beaches:
· Check that the bill is in order and the prices match the prices listed in the menu.
· Make sure that the prices listed include VAT and Service.
· When using a credit card, verify the validity of the operation before proceeding.
· Tipping is optional.
· Avoid eating food that has been left out in the open / in places that are not clean.
· When using Valet Parking make sure you collect your ticket before handing over your car to the attendant.
· Keep all your bills and receipts to be able to present any complaints.
The Tourist Control Department at the Ministry of Tourism is the appropriate reference which receives all kinds of complaints concerning the touristic institutions and treats them. Keep all your bills and receipts to be able to present any complaint. Hotline: 1735 / email@example.com
Ministry of Tourism
550 Central Bank St. Hamra Beirut
P.O.Box: 11-5344. Beirut, Lebanon
Fax: 00961-1- 340945
Tourist Information Offices
The office of Tourism in Hamra opens from Monday to Saturday (8:30a.m. – 4 p.m).
Beirut – Hamra
Tel: 01-340940/1/2/3/4 ext: 313
Karami square, Ahmad Karami Bldg.
Near Jeita Grotto
Lebanon Tourist Office
124, Street Faubourg St. Honoré.
75008 Paris – France
Tel: (33)-1-43591036 • (33)-143591213/4
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Near Byblos Castle
Lebanon Tourist Office
1-Talaat Harb Street ( Midan Al Tahrir)
Cairo – Egypt
Tel & Fax: (202) – 3937529
Tourist Control Department
Tel: +961 1 343209
Fax: +961 1 743763
Police Touristic Department:
Tel: +961 1 752428-9
Fax: +961 1 343504
Other important contacts
Hotline: +961 1 612401 or 1717
Tel: +961 1 425610-1-2
Tel: +961 1 629150
Fax: +961 1 394302
Fire Brigade: 175
Civil Defense: 125
Internal Security: 112 (Emergencies)
Police Headquarters: 160
Phone Information: 120
International Operator: 100
OGERO (Telephone Service): 1515
Lebanese Red Cross: 140
Civil Defense: 125
Weather Forecast: 1718
Beirut Rafic Hariri International Airport: 150
Syndicate of Hotel Owners in Lebanon
Sodeco Square - Beirut
Tel: +961 1 202059 / +961 1 201002
Mob: +961 3 862000
Syndicate of Furnished Appartment Owners in Lebanon
Hawai Tower – Karakas - Beirut
Tel: +961 1 808620 / +961 1 860196
Mob: 961 3 213611
Syndicate of Touristic Seaside Resorts In Lebanon
Jounieh Chiir - Lebanon
Tel: +961 3 203340
Syndicate of Restaurants, cafés, night clubs and pastries owners in Lebanon
Tel: +961 1 363040
Syndicate of Arabic Sweets Owners in Lebanon
F: +961 1 792198
Association of Travel and Tourist Agents in Lebanon
Berty Pharmacy- Achrafieh - Beirut
Tel: +961 3 705502 / +961 1 395600
Fax: +961 1 200176
Consumer Lebanon Association
Tel: +961 1 750650
Fax: +961 1 750650
www.consumerslebanon.org / info@ consumerslebanon.org
UPDATED 11 October 2013